When Raktaprachit Aab "13, A.M. "14, the Bangkok, enrolled in the college in 1909, the journey from house to Harvard took six weeks through ship and rail. Together if commemorating his labors (but in fact because of alphabetic an excellent fortune), Aab ended up being the very first listing in Harvard"s first official directory (1910), later on the alumni directory—a condition he preserved for 80 years.

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Now, 15 year after his death, Aab again holds the flagpole position, as the initial entrance in Harvard A come Z, simply published by Harvard university Press, an "unofficial guide...meant because that browsing," by a trio of writer whose an unified Harvard service exceeds also Aab"s lengthy run: Richard M. Hunt, Ph.D. "60, college Marshal from 1982 come 2002 and also a faculty member for 42 years; Robert Shenton, Ph.D. "62, Secretary to the administrate Boards native 1971 come 1991 and also Hunt"s initial collaborator, till his fatality in 2000; and also John T. Bethell "54, that then brought to the team the expertise he had built up as editor that Harvard magazine from 1966 to 1994 and also as writer of Harvard observed (1998).

The book"s penultimate honors loss to "Zeph Greek," the electronic typeface introduced in 1995 by the University push for its fix up editions in the Loeb classic Library (some 500 Greek and also Latin texts). The font honors Zeph Stewart, Mellon professor of the humanities emeritus, trustee of the Loeb structure since 1973. (The terminal entry is a nottard of Harvard speak, native "Ad Board" to "Yardling.")

In between are together essentials as the authors" pick for finest Hollywood functioning of a Crimson theme (Brown of Harvard, debuting john Wayne, ranking highest; forget Love Story); the "X Cage" (for the libraries" naughtier holdings, now secure in the Harvard Depository in Southborough, and available on request); and "Firsts" (aeronaut: Dr. Man Jeffries, course of 1763, across the English Channel through balloon in 1785).

Those interested in Harvard propriety will relish the authors" inclusion, under "Fashion," of the limerick duel end coat-and-tie rules at the Faculty Club. Entry one, native classicist and former Eliot residence master john H. Finley Jr., runs:

Though drawn by Lysippus and also Myron,And often presented by mr Byron,The masculine throatIs small object that note:It look at brighter with tighter attire on.

Penelope Laurans, climate a doctoral candidate in English, trump card the old lion thus:True, Byron to be shockingly bred.Still, at Harvard (have ns been misled?)I"ve been brought up to noteThat what"s outside the throatMatters less than what"s within the head!

For those to who the winning verse does not ring true, the authors additionally kindly include, in "Extinct Harvard," a 1909 verse by judge Robert Grant, course of 1873, LL.B. 1879, immortalizing the "gentleman"s C." that reads, in part,

The able-bodied C man! he sails swimmingly along.His approach is rosy as a skylark"s matin song.The light of his ambition is respectably come pass,And to hold a firm position in the center of his class.

At a time of college curriculum revision and also fretting about grade inflation, the C man"s advice, indigenous Raktaprachit Aab"s era, may also seem eerily au courant: "A skillful choice of studies renders one"s afternoons every free;/The chef merit of electives come the man who intends at C."

Cum laude or without, any type of Harvardian will discover something resonant amongst the 159 essays, sober and also silly, in Harvard A to Z. Herewith, a selection from the vowel chapters.

Harvard"s Veritas motto first appeared in a crude design for the college arms embraced by the board of Overseers in 1643. Samuel Eliot Morison, who word to be usually law in together matters, composed in 3 Centuries of Harvard the to seventeenth-century minds the hatchet "undoubtedly intended (as the did to Dante) the divine truth." A university seal of 1650 bears the maker In Christi Gloriam (for the Glory the Christ); that was superseded in 1692 through Christo et Ecclesiæ (Truth because that Christ and also the Church). Yet Veritas—brief and also not exclusively religious—is currently a fixture.

Professor Morison records that president Josiah Quincy, prepare to write his history of Harvard, "was delighted...to discover in the archives the first rough map out for a university arms, veritas on 3 books. The notice was made in ~ the <1836> bicentennial celebration; and in 1843, one ugly variation of the style was formally embraced by the Corporation together their seal." Morison adds the President Edward Everett, who adhered to Quincy, "conceived an extreme dislike of every little thing his predecessor had done" and also thus had actually ""this fantastical and anti-Christian Veritas seal gotten rid of to the forgotten corner of the documents where it had actually slept undisturbed for two hundred years.""

It slept again, to write Morison, "until 1885, when, greatly as the result of 2 vigorous sonnets through read before the Harvard society of new York, Veritas was brought forth as soon as more." president Eliot take it up the cause, and the copy, group re-adopted the seal that 1843. Plain shields v ve ri tas inscriptions on the 3 books showed up around 1913, once Harvard college Press began using lock on title pages. Over the next half-century, listed graphic designers—among them wilhelm Dwiggins, Bruce Rogers, Pierre la increased (class of 1895), and also Rudolph Ruzicka—tried your hands in ~ restyling Harvard"s arms. La Rose"s and also Ruzicka"s designs are still in regular use.

In heraldic terms, the arms room formally defined as "Gules, 3 open books Argent, edges, covers, and also clasps ~ above the books Or, on the books the letters ve ri tas Sable." In a triptych over the phase of Sanders Theatre, the upper books lie open; the reduced one is inverted. The customary interpretation is that the open publications symbolize existing knowledge, while the 3rd stands because that what remains unknown. In other treatments, the three publications are shown face up.


Used throughout
the University, the acronym ETOB means "Every tub on its very own Bottom." This axiom, coined in the early nineteenth century, is the radical of a very decentralized device of gaue won management.

In Harvard parlance, a tub is a high-level institutional unit—one of the 10 faculties, for example, or the main administration. All told, there are 52 tubs and countless sub-tubs. Each bathtub is expected to it is in self-financing: come prepare its own budgets, advanced its very own funds, and keep itself solvent.

Though the University has no central budget, that does, paradoxically, have a central Budget Office. That office evaluate the suggest budgets that the tubs and submits them come the Harvard Corporation, including its referrals for approval. The coporation, group traditionally approves only individual budgets, not an aggregate for the university as a whole. And although the budget Office compiles University-wide figures, that does so because that informational—not operational—purposes.

In theory, the central administration bear no duty for the solvency of any kind of faculty, museum, or other University institution. In actuality, there are times as soon as it go intervene. Examples might include establishing a new institute or research study center, rescuing a college or regimen that is suffering protracted financial trouble, or subsidizing essential activities that cannot otherwise be supported. In some instances the management acts together banker and makes loans, at interest, come a needy faculty or institution. In other cases it may make outright grants from its own funds.

The smaller schools—Design, Divinity, and also Education—are most likely to require periodic help. In ~ the other finish of the spectrum is the school of organization Administration. Despite the Faculty of Arts and Sciences and the clinical School have larger endowments, the organization School"s is spread over a smaller sized operational unit, and the school has amply prove its capability to attract outside funds from well-heeled graduates and also asset-heavy corporations. A faculty"s dependence on external (or "soft") money is critical index that its financial well-being. Exterior gifts and also grants consist of less than one-third that the revenue stream the the Faculty the Arts and Sciences, with the federal government providing about 13 percent of the amount. In contrast, the institution of Public health and wellness receives 84 percent that its income from external sources, and also governmental assistance accounts for 43 percent that the funding. In general, the corporation is tough-minded in the insistence on a confident bottom line and in that is reluctance to intervene unless the case is serious indeed.

The advance of ETOB as an institutional policy has never been documented in detail. The hatchet evidently originated during the presidency of man Thornton Kirkland (1810-1828). Declining to weigh in on the siting of a new building, Kirkland is claimed to have proclaimed that "it is our practice below for every bath tub to stand on its own bottom." The chief justification because that the device is that it urges initiative and self-reliance. It likewise gives the assorted faculties the utmost flexibility to pursue their scholastic goals together they view fit. Amongst the an unfavorable aspects that ETOB space the ar jousting that impedes interaction among faculties and fosters duplication of academic effort. ETOB also way that the central administration has far less authority than it otherwise might. Finally, the system is fussy and also bureaucratic; the internal billing and transfer steps are onerous and at times may be carried to what might seem absurd extremes. But in dollars-and-cents terms, together a means of achieving and also maintaining collective financial responsibility, ETOB works well overall. In fiscal year 2002, operating revenue for the university as a whole was $2.357 billion; expenses involved $2.287 billion, and the publications thus proved an unrestricted operating surplus of almost $70 million.


More 보다 a decade prior to formal organization play to be organized, the brand-new York Herald Tribune sportswriter Stanley Woodward offered the phrase "ivy colleges" to define nine schools—Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Pennsylvania, Princeton, the U.S. Military Academy in ~ West Point, and Yale—that had nurtured the game of football, had engaged in longstanding athletic rivalries, and had structures with ivy-covered walls. That was in the loss of 1933. Associated Press sports editor Alan Gould has been credited with the first use of "Ivy League" in February 1935.

Concerned around the professionalization of university football, eight college presidents met in 1945 to authorize an "Ivy group Agreement" (West point was no represented). Affirming the their football programs have to be "in fitting proportion come the main purpose of academic life," the presidents ruled the end athletic scholarships, pledged to uphold joint criter for financial help and eligibility, and formed a standing committee who members consisted of the colleges" directors of athletics. In 1952, the Ivy group voted come abolish feather football practice and banned postseason games; 2 years later its members i agree to expand their plans to every intercollegiate sports and also announced the inception of official Ivy organization football competition. Round-robin play started in the autumn of 1956.

In subsequent decades, the Ivy Group produced formal programs for women"s teams; reluctantly welcomed a national Collegiate strong Association ruling that made freshmen eligible because that varsity teams; restored restricted spring football methods (also reluctantly); and adopted an "academic index" the pegged admissions standards for athletes come grade point averages because that the schools" students together a whole.

Despite the league"s fairly strict standards, the eight schools have succeeded in attracting completed student-athletes and achieving a high level of competition and parity. Princeton currently boasts the largest number of league championships in every sports, followed carefully by Harvard. Next, in descending order, come Pennsylvania, Yale, Cornell, Dartmouth, Brown, and also Columbia. Former Ivy athletes have gone ~ above to distinguish themselves in the professions, business, entertainment, politics, and also occasionally in professional sports. In one current season, there to be nine previous Ivy Leaguers on nationwide Football league rosters.

The Ivy Group—now officially known as the the supervisory board of Ivy team Presidents—maintains an office employee in Princeton, brand-new Jersey. "Ivy League," however, has accomplished currency together a shorthand term for the eight participating establishments in the aggregate, and as a descriptive denoting a an ext or less acceptably elitist manner and a conservatively natty layout of dress. It therefore lends itself to one adjectival formation, as in "That fellow doesn"t watch Ivy come me."


The periodically cloudy skies of Cambridge aren"t always conducive to trying out the heavens. But the Harvard university Observatory (HCO) on Observatory Hill, at 60 Garden Street in Cambridge, remains a famous place for stargazing on the third Thursday the every month throughout the year. Top top those evenings, the Harvard-Smithsonian facility for Astrophysics (CFA) sponsors complimentary programs, open to the public, of lectures and also then telescopic the town hall of the skies native the Observatory roof—if the weather obliges. When it does, visitors might see Saturn, Jupiter, or objects like the Orion Nebula increase close, v the Observatory"s nine-inch Clark refractor telescope and additionally through three portable telescopes, all eight-inch reflectors. Attendance at this viewings frequently reaches more than 200, and also many visitors find them an awe-inspiring experience.

Founded in 1839, the HCO offers research facilities for faculty and students in the department of astronomy in the Faculty the Arts and also Sciences. The HCO and also the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory together type the CFA, i beg your pardon involves more than 300 scientists engaged in astrophysical research. This scientists have pioneered in the breakthrough of instrumentation for observatories ~ above the ground and also in space, spanning virtually the whole electromagnetic spectrum.

At the Harvard-Smithsonian Center"s Oak Ridge Observatory in Harvard, Massachusetts, astronomers find for evidence of planets about other stars and for signals from extraterrestrial beings. On the eighth floor the Harvard"s Undergraduate scientific research Center, a small but well-equipped observatory is used generally by students.

In the first half the the twenty century, Harvard huge stations made observations in Peru and, later, in south Africa.

Related websites: cfa-www.harvard.edu; cfa-www.harvard.edu/hco/.


There"s more to Harvard 보다 meets the eye. Much goes top top underground. Many of the University"s infrastructure—giant boilers, vapor lines, elaborate electrical and also telephone relays, servomechanisms, and also metering instruments—is below ground level. Without complicated networks of heavy steam and food tunnels, water mains, and also sanitary and also storm drainage systems, the daily life the the place would grind come a halt. And also what would Harvard be choose without the subway line the has linked it to Boston due to the fact that 1912? As avenues for aboveground expansion diminish, Harvard burrows bottom to produce spaces for library and also museum collections, academic and administrative offices, classrooms, eat places, and also parking. Components of Harvard"s underworld room open only to operating engineers and maintenance workers. Others room in consistent use by the college community.

The biggest and also busiest underground room isn"t Harvard"s. It"s the cavernous Harvard Square subway station, substantially enlarged in the 1980s. The University"s new North Precinct parking garage and a chilled-water plant in the Undergraduate Science center are the next-largest subterranean spaces. In ~ the other end of the range would be any of the 300-odd electrical and also utility manholes dotted around the environs of Harvard Yard and the more distant Business and Medical school campuses. Somewhere in in between come the tunnels. The Cambridge-Allston vapor tunnels—largest that a half-dozen separate systems—incorporate some five miles of underground passageways and pipe trenches.

The Harvard Square subway station was renovated as component of a $586 million building project that expanded the north terminus of the Massachusetts bay Transit Authority"s Red heat from Cambridge with Somerville come Alewife Station. The old station was demolished and replaced by a large lobby, more than three stories deep, with rounded walls, a huge mezzanine area, and also merchandising stalls. In addition to subway platforms, the station residences a terminal serving diesel buses and trackless trolleys; the busway boasts a noteworthy stained-glass mural by the so late Gyorgy Kepes, founder and former manager of MIT"s facility for advanced Visual Art. Disused communication of the old subway station can be dimly discerned native Red heat trains to run to or indigenous Boston; a big of abandoned tunnel leader under Harvard and Brattle squares towards what once was one aboveground vehicle yard. Once that yard was relocated as component of the Red line extension, Harvard got the 12-acre home as a website for the Kennedy institution of federal government complex.

Back to the nether regions. The capacious north Precinct secret garage is a key piece in an ambitious development plan for the area north of the college Museum. To make method for much-needed science laboratories, administrators choose to expropriate almost 600 surface ar parking spaces and also replace them below ground level. The new garage rectal land where the Cambridge Electron Accelerator, the Harvard Cyclotron, the High power Physics Laboratory, and also the Palfrey home previously stood. The high-energy physics centers, long obsolete, were demolished; the Greek renewal Palfrey House, constructed in 1831, will now occupy a website not much from its initial location. The phibìc Precinct garage, with room for 730 cars, was designed to offer as a deck supporting new lab buildings.

In cubic volume, Harvard"s chilled-water plant in the scientific research Center"s sub-basement is about two-thirds the dimension of Boston"s Symphony Hall. From 2 rooftop cooling towers, chill water cascades down to the plant through pipes 3 feet in diameter; the facility serves the air-conditioning and process-cooling demands of some 70 University structures in Cambridge. In the floor broken behind the Science facility for a 135,000-square-foot activities for interface Science and also Engineering, with facilities for vibration-sensitive research study in mesoscale and also nanoscale science. Two-thirds the the brand-new building will be underground.

The Radcliffe Quadrangle, the law School, and also the company School each have tunnel systems for the movement of goods and services. The river homes are join by a quarter-mile-long company tunnel originally developed to deliver food from the main kitchen on JFK Street. Subterranean Harvard"s many picturesque promenades, however, are the tunnels the the Cambridge heavy steam Distribution System. Largely built in the late 1920s, this labyrinthine network brings high-pressure vapor to around 200 buildings in Cambridge and Allston. Together in chairman Lowell"s day, lot of Harvard counts on vapor for an are heating and hot water; the larger kitchens usage it for cooking, and laboratories must have actually it ~ above tap. Beginning from the blackstone generating tree at west Avenue and Memorial Drive, the system"s key tunnel leader to the Houses and to Harvard Yard, branching turn off to the company School via the mainly Bridge. Created before the arrival of remote security devices, these tunnels had to allow headroom and also working space for crews inspecting the system"s countless pipe joints, pressure gauges, meters, and also shutoff valves. Till 1968, when building of the Cambridge Street underpass clogged off the main tunnel together it left the Yard, it to be possible—with a little of a to crawl here and there—to take it a subterranean stroll indigenous the organization School come the regulation School (and nearly to the current site the the north Precinct parking garage). A stroller, however, would have arised mopping his or she brow. Ambient temperature in the tunnels hovers around 100 degrees, and peaks as high together 140 levels have to be recorded.

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Chronic room squeezes have driven the switch of countless Harvard yard basements into office, classroom, and storage areas. A generation ago, the college News Office occupied cramped soldier in the basement of college Hall; until 1992, its picture lab was in Weld Hall"s basement. The architects of more recent structures have not overlooked the potential the below-grade space. The science Center"s reduced level houses computer system labs and also electrical and an equipment shops. Pusey Library, through its Map Collection, Theatre Collection, exhibition areas, college Archives, and also faculty offices, is almost wholly underground. Because that library"s perfect in 1973, Widener, Pusey, and also Lamont libraries have been linked by underground tunnels.