Our objective is to identify and study the homologous and also analogous guts in plants and also animals.

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The Theory

The central idea of biological evolution is that all life on planet shares a usual ancestry and also some similarity have advanced in various other ways. This are referred to as homologies and also analogies. We will certainly look in ~ the various characteristics and identify the homologous and analogous guts in the plants and also animals we have actually selected.


Homology describes the characteristics inherited by two different organisms from a usual ancestry.

Homology in Animals

Organs such together bat's wing, wing of birds, seal’s flipper, forelimb the a horse, and also human arm have actually a usual underlying anatomy that was existing in your last typical ancestors; therefore their forelimbs are homologous organs.

We can observe that though the shape and also the size of the bones room not similar, there is a similarity in their structure that is, they have the same collection of skeleton - humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals and also phalanges.

Man offers his hands to grasp and also perform tasks, whales use their flippers for swimming, bats and also birds use their wings because that flight and horses usage their forelimbs because that running.


Frogs, birds, rabbits and also lizards all have in different way shaped forelimbs, showing their different lifestyles. However those various forelimbs all share the same set of homologous bones: the humerus, radius, and ulna. Such homologies reveal the common ancestry of every these animals.


Homology in Plants

Plants too have actually homologous structures favor those checked out in animals. In some plants favor the pitcher, venus fly trap, poinsettia and cactus, the leaves show different functions and also shapes indigenous the ‘normal’ leaves we think about. Every of these leaves is a homologous structure, derived from a common genealogical form.

The pitcher plant and also the venus flytrap supplies leaves come trap and also digest insects. The shining red pipeline of the poinsettia despite leaves, look prefer flower petals. The cactus leaves room modified into little spines that assist reduce water loss and protect the cactus from plant-eaters.


The tendril of a pea plant and also spines of a barberry plant room homologous guts showing comparable functions. The tendril that a pea tree is a modification leaf used for providing mechanical support to the plant. But in the case of barberry plants, the spines are modified leaves intended for protection. The tendril the a pea plant and spines of a barberry despite originated native leaves, space homologous organs performing different functions.



Analogy describes the similarity in role of two different organisms due to convergent evolution and not usual ancestry.

Analogy in Animals

Analogous organs room the the contrary of homologous organs, i m sorry have comparable functions yet different origins. An instance of an analogous trait would certainly be the wings of insects, bats and also birds that evolved independently in each lineage separately after diverging native an ancestor there is no wings. The wing of insects originate from the inside or outer surface that the insect’s body. Feather of bird originate from your forelimbs, and also the wing of bats originate indigenous both the fore limb and also the membranous skin that the abdomen.


Another example of analogous animals is street gliders and flying squirrels. This two pets can glide in air utilizing their gliding wings. Both species are various from each other in countless ways. Paris squirrel room placental mammals, where as sugar gliders are marsupial mammals choose kangaroos. To adapt a typical function, the flying squirrel and also sugar glider evolved similar gliding wings.


Analogy in plants

The leaves of opuntia and also peepal are analogous offal in plants. In opuntia the stem is modified into a wide succulent leaf prefer structure that performs photosynthesis choose leaves. Peepal sheet is a regular leaf the performs photosynthesis. For this reason both the opuntia and also peepal leaves do common duty through photosynthesis, for this reason they room analogous.

Many the the cacti and also African euphorbias are comparable in appearance, being succulent, spiny, water-storing, and adapted to desert problems generally. But these two plants belonging to various families though they re-superstructure traits follow to the similar environmental conditions they are put in.

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Potato and sweet potato additionally show comparable characteristics, but have different origins. Potato is a amendment stem intended for storage of food. Sweet potato is a amendment root likewise meant because that the warehouse of food, therefore they room analogous.


Learning OutcomesStudents recognize the state homology and analogy.Students will be able recognize organisms that display homological similarities.Students will certainly be able determine organisms that display analogical similarities. Gvgv