Lee neatly structures she novel around a dual plot and twin Themes; the novel is evenly separated into 2 parts. In she graceful, understated style, Lee weaves together a story about two children growing up in a tiny southern town, and a story about the children’s father, a white attorney who defends a black guy unjustly accused that raping a white woman. Since both story involve Jem, Scout, and also Atticus, Scout’s first-person narration, with its emphasis on the breakthrough of these 3 Characters, unifies the various story lines.

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The narrator’s focus on Jem is particularly far-reaching to the structure and definition of the story. Lee create in scout an extremely likable, funny character, but she invests Jem with the depth and literary intricacy of a protagonist. Each section of the book begins and also ends through a summary of Jem as he matures and changes. Scout starts her narrative v the statement: “When the was almost thirteen, my brother Jem acquired his arm badly broken at the elbow.” The remainder of the story follows from this basic revelation, and also by the final chapters, as soon as the injury in reality occurs, the damaged arm dead symbolic significance.

Through lot of part 1, Jem is a kid who theatre make-believe games with Scout and Dill, yet toward the end of the very first section, that has begun to identify the difference in between right and also wrong, great and evil. Scout’s narration reflects this development; she begins part 2 by noting: “Jem was twelve. The was challenging to live with, inconsistent, moody.” Hence, Scout set the tone for the ar of the novel that deals largely with the trial of Tom Robinson; simply as Jem is entering a an overwhelming stage, learning to challenge conflicting emotions and also beliefs, therefore too are the world of Maycomb emotion the tension of a trial that will certainly shake the foundation of your racially-divided town. Near the finish of the novel, Bob Ewell, that represents the backwardness and evil the prejudice, tries to death Jem and Scout in a vengeful effort to pains Atticus. Jem’s eight is broken during the attack, symbolizing the pain and disillusionment he has actually experienced if learning around Boo Radley and also witnessing the Robinson trial.

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Jem survives the assault but carries a long-term scar, a symbol of the disabling strength of hatred and also injustice. Scout says that together a an outcome of his injury that night, Jem’s left eight is “somewhat shorter than his right; as soon as he was standing or walked, the earlier of his hand to be at best angles come his body, his thumb parallel to his thigh.” In this way, Jem shares a bond v Tom Robinson, because that Robinson’s left arm is also much shorter than his right. Together a an outcome of one accident including a noodle gin, he is permanently crippled, and as Atticus suggests at his trial, that is therefore physically incapable of beating Mayella Ewell in the manner that she describes. Yet Robinson’s most damning handicap proves to be his race. Jem’s broken arm serves together a reminder the this fact, and Lee implies that Jem has been irreparably changed as a result of Tom Robinson’s trial.

Lee likewise suggests, however, the Jem’s disillusionment is no permanent and also that the will prosper up come be together fair-minded and also compassionate as his father. Atticus acts together a guardian that justice throughout the novel, and also Lee symbolically end the story v the image of Atticus watching end his children. Scout’s last passage claims that Atticus “turned the end the light and also went into Jem’s room. He would certainly be there every night, and he would certainly be there as soon as Jem waked increase in the morning.”