exactly how are perchlorate or chlorate or chlorite ions and their respective acids or link formed. $ceCl$ can"t kind more than one bond however still...

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$ ightarrow$"Perchlorate ion"

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$ ightarrow$"Chlorous mountain containing Chlorite ion"

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$ ightarrow$"Chlorate ion"

Chlorine is making more than 1 bond... How is it possible?


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The stimulate of bonding, and also so the valence state that Cl in $ceClO_x-, x>1$ link is very debatable. Generally, two models exist.

$ceCl$ atom, just like $ceS, P$ and some others has unoccupied $d$-orbitals in the valence shell. It is feasible to move some electron from $p$-orbitals to $d$-orbitals, producing half-occupied orbitals that deserve to participate in covalent shortcut formation

$ceO$ atom has 6 electron at the valence covering with four orbitals. It is feasible to relocate one electron from chlorine atom to oxygen atom to form $ceO^dot- $ ion, that deserve to than kind a bond with newly developed half-filled orbit of chlorine. However, gift electronegative and also having high optimistic charge, chlorine partially pulls earlier the electron pair of newly created bond.

Currently the 2nd option is in donate of theoreticians, both through electron populace analysis and fairly high charges in the oxochloric compounds, however, in school-level aufdercouch.net human being traditionally will to the first option. Top top the other hand, the 2nd approach is the just option come adequately describe nitric acid and also nitrates together nitrogen go not have $d$-orbitals top top the valence shell.

Now, the security of oxochloric compound is a fully different matter. All of them are not very stable compounds, easily releasing their oxygen. Still, the process has far-ranging activation energy, the state in in between is even less favorable then oxochloric molecule. Both oxygen and also chlorine have electron-rich shells that repel potential reactants.

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Perchlorate ion is especially stable, in ~ its surface ar is completely covered by outer negative shells that oxygen, so electron cannot reach positively charged chlorine.