H2O is the molecular formula the water, one of the significant constituents that the Earth. A single molecule is comprised of 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, which room bonded through the covalent bond. Moreover, two or much more H2O molecules attach with the assist of hydrogen bond to type a compound.

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It is exciting to realize the the covalent bonds are stronger than the hydrogen bonds, the is the reason why water conveniently reacts with the bulk of the chemical aspects from the regular table.

The Lewis structure, or also called an electron period structure, is a diagrammatic representation of identify the total number of valence electrons existing in one atom, i m sorry are ready to experience bond formation to type a molecule and ultimately a compound.

The valence electron are shown by illustration them together dots around the prize of the atom, greatly in pairs.

The maximum number of dots that deserve to be attracted is eight per atom, as per the octet rule. Moreover, the development of a bond since of reacting valence electrons are shown with the aid of the lines.

The atomic number of a hydrogen atom is one, which makes its electronic configuration 1s1. Together the 1s shell can accommodate a maximum of 2 electrons, over there is a dearth of one more electron.

It provides a single hydrogen atom to have one valence electron.

Besides this, in the situation of oxygen, its digital configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p4 where 2p shell deserve to accommodate 6 electrons.

As over there is a dearth of 2 electrons, the total number of valence electron in one oxygen atom is six.

What room the valence electrons?

The valence electrons room ‘free electrons’ present in the outermost covering of the atom. The nucleus holds the outer shell weakly together it is the furthest in the distance.

Moreover, if the valence electrons room unpaired, they end up being highly reactive in nature by one of two people accepting or donating electron to stabilize the outermost shell.

It is interesting to realize the the bigger the variety of valence electrons, the more powerful will it is in the capability to accept the electrons.

Whereas, the smaller sized the variety of valence electrons, the more powerful will it is in the capability of the atom to donate them.

What is the Octet rule?

According come the Octet rule, the maximum of valence electrons the an atom can have is eight. Moreover, these eight electrons are drawn only around the symbol of the atom in the Lewis structure.

The oxygen has actually a dearth of 2 valence electrons. Whereas, the 2 hydrogen atoms have actually a dearth of 2 valence electron in total.

The Lewis structure of H2O is attracted in such a manner the the deficiency of every atom is fulfilled.

Lewis structure of H2O

The Lewis structure of hydrogen and also 2 oxygen atoms reflects a complete of eight valence electrons participate in the bond formation to kind a solitary triatomic H2O molecule.

Here, we must understand how the Lewis structure is drawn for the H2O molecule:

Look because that the total valence electrons: it is eight to form a single H2O molecule.Look for how numerous electrons are needed: it is four for one water (H2O) molecule according to the octet rule.Find the total number of bonds forming: solitary covalent bonds in between each oxygen and also hydrogen atom.Choose a main atom: The Oxygen atom will be the main atomDraw the lewis diagram:


The Geometrical structure of the H2O molecule

The bond angle amongst hydrogen-oxygen-hydrogen atom (H-O-H) is 104.5°. Native this, it have the right to be taken that the geometrical framework of a solitary H2O molecule is bent.

It is explained with the assist of the Valence shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory, which states why regardless of whether of having actually two bag of lone electron on the oxygen atom the bond angle is decreased to 104.5°.

The appropriate bond angle for a bent-shaped molecule is 109.5°.

According come the Lewis structure, over there exists lone pair as soon as all the valence electrons about the atom space not paired.

Similar is a situation of the oxygen atom in the H2O molecule, where 2 lone bag exist.

These lone bag distort the bond angle due to the lone pair-lone pair, i beg your pardon is an ext than the bond pair-bond pair and lone pair-bond pair repulsion.

When the lone pair increases, the bond edge decreases. Together there space two lone bag on the oxygen atom, the reduces the bond edge to 104.5°.

Hybridization that H2O molecule

The bond in between each oxygen and also hydrogen atom in a water molecule is sigma (σ) through no pi (π) bonds.

As us know, sigma (σ) bonds space the strongest covalent bonds. As a result, over there is high stability in between the oxygen and also the hydrogen atom.

It is the two lone bag on the oxygen atom which renders all the difference. The hybridization the a water (H2O) molecule is sp3, wherein its oxygen has actually been hybridized.

According come the diagram, it can be analyzed the the solitary oxygen atom in the water (H2O) molecule has one 2s orbital and three 2p orbitals. These four altogether leads to the development of 4 sp3 hybridized orbitals.

It leader to the development of the tetrahedral bend geometry, where in its entirety H2O molecule reflects 25% characteristics of s and 75% features of the ns orbital.

It can more be described with the aid of a molecular orbital diagram the the H2O molecule.


The 2s orbital and also three 2p orbitals the the oxygen atom forms four brand-new hybrid orbitals which more bonds by undergoing overlapping through the 1s orbital of the hydrogen atoms.

Molecular orbit diagram the water (H2O)


The molecular orbital diagram is a photographic representation the determining chemistry bonding between the molecules of a compound.

Furthermore, the molecular orbital diagram helps v determining just how two sigma bonds have actually been formed and the result of the lone bag on the structure.

From the over diagram, it deserve to be viewed that the 6 valence electrons space bonding v the 1s orbital electrons the the hydrogen atom.

The mixing and overlapping are occurring amongst the atom orbital of comparable energy.

It is following in together a manner the the bonding electron in lower power are developing antibonding molecular orbitals of greater energy.

The left oxygen electrons execute not overlap further because of the scarcity the electrons.

The oxygen atom has its electronegativity greater than hydrogen. As result of this, oxygen has a higher negative charge, vice versa, hydrogen has actually a confident charge. It provides oxygen attract adjacent electrons and type a bond ultimately.

On the various other hand, the hydrogen does not react with surrounding molecules as it has currently fulfilled that is orbital and also bonded v oxygen v a sigma bond, i beg your pardon is not easy to break.

It leads to the development of polarity in one H2O molecule, regardless of of having actually a network neutral charge.

You can likewise check one interesting article written about the polarity in water.


The Lewis framework of the triatomic H2O molecule reflects two solitary sigma bonds in between the oxygen atom and also the hydrogen atoms. Moreover, this bonds leave two lone bag of electrons on the oxygen atom that mainly contributes come the tetrahedral bend geometrical framework of the H2O molecule.

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It is the reason why the link angle the should have been 109.5° is 104.5°. The hybridization that the H2O molecule is sp3 due to the fact that it has actually one s orbital and three ns orbitals mix to form four hybrid orbitals.