What is Ammonium Nitrate?

Ammonium nitrate is one ionic salt comprised of the ammonium cation (NH4)+ and the nitrate anion (NO3)–. The chemistry formula that this link is NH4NO3.

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Table that Contents

Structure that Ammonium Nitrate

This compound attributes an ionic bond between an ammonium ion and also a nitrate ion. The structure of an NH4NO3 molecule is depicted below.


The pi electrons in the nitrate ion space delocalized due to resonance. The net charge on this ion is -1 (since the nitrogen atom stop a fee of +1 and also each oxygen atom stop a fee of -⅔). Therefore, just one NH4+ ion can type an ionic bond v one NO3– ion.

Chemical Data

Chemical Formula


Molar Mass/ molecule Weight

80.043 grams per mole


1.725 grams every cubic centimetre

Melting Point

442.8K (169.6oC)

Boiling Point

Decomposes at 483K (210oC)

Preparation that Ammonium Nitrate

Ammonium nitrate readily dissolves in water by dissociating into its constituent ions. This salt is acidic in nature because it is obtained from a weak basic (NH3) and a solid acid (HNO3).


NH4NO3 have the right to be all set from the acid-base reaction in between nitric acid and ammonia, described by the following chemical equation:

NH3 + HNO3 → NH4NO3

This reaction is very exothermic and also proceeds violently. Ammonium nitrate is additionally known for its oxidizing powers. That is widely supplied in plenty of explosives used in the mining and also construction sectors. NH4NO3 is additionally one the the key components of ANFO, among the many popular choices of industrial explosives.

Ammonium Nitrate Properties

Physical Properties

It has actually a trigonal decision structure.It is rather soluble in water; that is solubility at 20oC is 150g/100ml. The solubility boosts to 1024g/100ml once the temperature is raised to 100oThe dissolution of NH4NO3 in H2O is highly endothermic.This link has really low shock and also friction sensitivities.

Chemical Properties

When NH4NO3 is reacted through the hydroxides that alkali metals, the nitrates that alkali steels are formed together with ammonia.When exploded, this compound returns N2, O2, and also water as the byproducts.Despite being a ingredient of many explosives, ammonium nitrate is no an explosive by itself. It have to be mixed with a major explosive such together an azide to form an explosive mixture.

Uses of Ammonium Nitrate

Some crucial applications the this ionic salt are provided below.

NH4NO3 is a crucial component of many fertilizers due to the fact that it is rather rich in nitrogen (34%).Another advantage of this compound is the it doesn’t lose its nitrogen come the atmosphere, as is the instance with urea.When blended with fuel oil, it forms an explosive known as ANFO, which is one of the most well-known industrial explosives.The resolution of this link in water is fairly endothermic, making the an ideal an option of product in prompt cold packs.It is also used in the mining and construction market as a component of explosives.

Despite its numerous applications, the usage of this compound is being gradually phased the end by the federal governments of countless countries due to its scope because that misuse. Ammonium nitrate was among the key ingredients the the explosives that were offered in the 2011 Delhi bombings and also the 2013 blasts in Hyderabad.

Used to make fertilizers and explosives, and also as a nutrient in antibiotic and yeast growth. Ammonium nitrate is the nitric mountain ammonium salt. It has actually a role as a fertilizer, an oxidizing agent and an explosive.

Ammonium nitrate is not acid but a salt however the solution is acidic due to the fact that it is a salt with a weak basic (ammonium hydroxide) and a heavy nitric acid.

It feeling cold when ammonium nitrate is liquified in water which suggests an endothermic reaction. In an endothermic reaction, the ammonium nitrate dissolves in water, a chemical reaction that absorbs warm rather 보다 releases it. Ammonium nitrate consists of strict packed, ionic bonds.

Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound provided as a fertilizer in agriculture, for creating pyrotechnics, as an ingredient in cold packs, and for scientific demonstrations. This is likewise used in mining and also quarrying come produce regulated explosions.

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Ammonium nitrate fertilizer is the compound’s most usual application yet it also has a very volatile quality, make it valuable in some industries. The usage of ammonium nitrate in gardens and also large-scale cultivation fields stimulates plant growth and also provides a ready source of nitrogen that plants can attract from.