Resistance is the home of the material that restricts the circulation of electrons. There room four factors affecting resistance which space Temperature, length of wire, Area that the cross-section of the wire, and also nature that the material.

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When over there is present in a conductive material, the cost-free electrons relocate through the material and occasionally collide with atoms. These collisions reason the electron to lose some of their energy, and thus their activity is restricted. This limit varies and is established by the kind of material. The home of a material that restricts the flow of electrons is referred to as resistance.When there is current through any material that has resistance, warmth is produced by the collisions of totally free electrons and atoms. Therefore, wire, which typically has a very small resistance, becomes warmth when there is sufficient existing through it.See Also: species of electric chargeWhat is the unit that resistance?Resistance,R,is express in ohms and also is symbolized by the Greek letter omega (Ω).“One ohm (1Ω) that resistance exist if there is one ampere (1A) of present in a product when one volt (1V) is applied across the material.”What is conductance?The reciprocal of resistance is conductance, symbolized through G.It is a measure of the ease with which current is established. The formula is:


The unit that conductance is the Siemens, abbreviation S.Foe example, the conductance of a 22KΩ resister is G=1/22KΩ=45.5µs. Occasionally, the obsolete unit of mho is still used for conductance.See Also: Coulomb’s law

List of components affecting resistance

Resistance to reduce with boost in temperature. The thermistor is a temperature-dependent resistor and its resistance decreases as temperature rises. The thermistor is provided in a circuit the senses temperature change. There are four components on i beg your pardon resistance depends.

Length(L)it’s cross-sectional area(A)the type of materialnature that material

The resistance that a wire counts both top top the cross-sectional area and also length the the wire and also on the nature the the material of the wire. Thick wires have actually less resistance than thin wires. Longer wires have more resistance than brief wires. Copper wire has actually less resistance slim steel wire of the very same size. Electric resistance additionally depends top top temperature. In ~ a particular temperature and for a particular substance.

How walk the size of the wire influence resistance?

The resistance R the the wire is directly proportional come the size of the cable :

R α L…..(1)

It means,if we dual the length of the wire, the resistance will additionally be doubled, and also if its length is halved, the resistance would end up being one half.

Relation of resistance v area:

The resistance R of a wire is inversely proportional come the area the cross-section A the the wire as:

R α 1/A……(2)

It method that a thick cable would have actually smaller resistance 보다 a slim wire. After combine the equations (1) and (2) us get;

R α L/A


Where ρ is the continuous of proportionality, recognized as details resistance. That value relies upon the nature that conductor i.e copper, iron, tin, and silver would each have different values of ρ. Native equation (3) we have;

ρ=R A /L….(4)

If L=1m, A=1m² then ρ=R.Thus the equation (4) gives the definition.See also: Difference between Voltage and current

What is particular resistance?

The resistance that a one-meter cube the a problem is equal to its details resistance. The unit the ρ is ohm-meter (Ωm).Below given table the some metals with certain resistance:

Metal particular resistance(10-8Ω)silver 1.7Copper 1.69Aluminum 2.75Tungsten 5.25Platinum 10.6Iron 9.8Ni-chrome 100Graphite 3500

What room conductors?A product or an item that conducts heat, electricity, irradiate or sound is dubbed conductors.Metal wires are good conductors that electricity and offer less resistance to the flow of current. Why steels conduct electricity?… steels like silver and also copper have an excess of free electrons which room not organized strongly v any particular atom that metals. These totally free electrons relocate randomly in every directions inside metals. As soon as we apply external ar these electrons can quickly move in a details direction.This activity of complimentary electrons in a particular direction under the influence of an outside field reasons the flow of existing in metal wires.

How does resistance boost with temperature?

The conductors have a low value of resistance. The resistance that conductors boosts with rise in temperature. This is early to boost in the variety of collisions of electrons with themselves and with the atoms of the metals. Gold, silver, copper, aluminum, and also other steels are good examples of conductors. Earth is likewise a very good and large conductor.What room insulators?A product that walk not easily transmit energy, such as electric current or warm is dubbed insulators. Why insulators do not conduct electricity?. All products contain electrons. The electron in insulators, prefer rubber, however, are not complimentary to move. They room tightly bound within atoms. Hence, current cannot flow through one insulator since they room no complimentary electrons because that the flow of current. Insulators have a very large value the resistance.Glass,wood,plastic,fur,silk, etc.

Combinations the resistance in the electric circuit

There room two possible combinations that resistance in electric circuits:

Series combinationParallel combination

Series combination:

In collection combinations, resistors are connected end to end and electric existing has a solitary path through the circuit. This method that the existing passing v each resistor is the same.

The current is the same through all points in the series circuit. The present through every resistor in a series circuit is the same as the current through every the resistors that space in collection with it. In the above figure, 3 resistors are associated in collection to a DC voltage source.At any point in this circuit, the present into that allude must equal the existing out of the point. Notification also that the current out of each resistor must equal the current into every resistor because there is no ar where part of the current can branch-off and also go what else.Therefore, the existing in each ar of the circuit is the very same as the current in all various other sections. It has only one route going indigenous the positive(+) next of the source to the an adverse (_) side.

Total collection resistance:

The total collection resistance that a series circuit is same to the amount of the resistance of each individual series resistor. As soon as resistors are associated in series, the resistor values include because each resistor supplies opposition to the current in the direct proportion to its resistance. A greater number of resistors associated in series creates much more opposition come current. Much more opposition to current implies a higher value of resistance. Thus, every time a resistor is included in series, the total resistance increases.See also: types of electric charge

Formula of complete resistance in series combination:

For any variety of individual resistors associated in series, the complete resistance is the sum of each of the individual values.


Where Rt is the total resistance and also Rn is the critical resistor in the series string. Because that example, if there space 3 resistors in collection .the full resistance formula will be


If over there are 6 resistors in collection (n=6), the complete resistance formula will be:


2:Parallel combination:

When 2 or an ext resistors room individually connected between the same two different points, they space in parallel with each other. A parallel circuit provides an ext than one route for current.


Each current path is dubbed a branch. A parallel circuit is one more that has much more than one branch. Three resistors are connected in parallel presented in the above figure. When resistors are connected in parallel, the existing has more than one path. The variety of current courses is equal to the variety of parallel branches.

Formula for complete parallel resistance:

Since Vs is the voltage throughout each of the parallel resistors in the above figure, by Ohm’s legislation I=Vs/R:

Vs/Rt= Vs/R1+ Vs/R2+ Vs/R3…….(1)

The term Vs have the right to be factored out of the appropriate side of the equation and also canceled v Vs on the left side, leaving just the resistance terms.

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1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3……(2)

Recall that the reciprocal of resistance (1/R) is called conductance, which is symbolized by G.The unit of conductance is the Siemens (s). Equation (2) deserve to be expressed in regards to conductance as:

Gt = G1 + G2 + G2

Solve for Rt in equation (2) by acquisition the mutual of that is inverting both sides of the equation.