to compare and contrast the structures and uses of starch, glycogen, and cellulose.

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The polysaccharides are the many abundant carbohydrates in nature and serve a selection of functions, such as power storage or as components of plant cell walls. Polysaccharides space very large polymers written of tens to countless monosaccharides joined with each other by glycosidic linkages. The three most abundant polysaccharides are starch, glycogen, and cellulose. These 3 are referred to as homopolymers because each yields only one kind of monosaccharide (glucose) after complete hydrolysis. Heteropolymers might contain street acids, amino sugars, or noncarbohydrate building materials in enhancement to monosaccharides. Heteropolymers are typical in nature (gums, pectins, and also other substances) yet will not be questioned further in this textbook. The polysaccharides are nonreducing carbohydrates, room not sweet tasting, and do no undergo mutarotation.


Starch is the most important resource of carbohydrate in the person diet and also accounts for more than 50% of our carbohydrate intake. It wake up in tree in the type of granules, and these are an especially abundant in seeds (especially the grain grains) and also tubers, whereby they serve as a storage form of carbohydrates. The failure of starch to glucose nourishes the plant during periods of lessened photosynthetic activity. We regularly think of potatoes as a “starchy” food, yet various other plants save on computer a much higher percentage of strength (potatoes 15%, wheat 55%, corn 65%, and rice 75%). Commercial strength is a white powder.

Starch is a mixture of two polymers: amylose and also amylopectin. Herbal starches consist of of around 10%–30% amylose and also 70%–90% amylopectin. Amylose is a direct polysaccharide composed completely of D-glucose systems joined by the α-1,4-glycosidic linkages we saw in maltose (part (a) of figure (PageIndex1)). Experimental evidence indicates that amylose is not a straight chain that glucose units yet instead is coiled choose a spring, with six glucose monomers per turn (part (b) of figure (PageIndex1)). As soon as coiled in this fashion, amylose has actually just enough room in its core to accommodate one iodine molecule. The characteristic blue-violet color that shows up when strength is treated through iodine is because of the formation of the amylose-iodine complex. This color test is sensitive enough to detect even minute amounts of strength in solution.

Figure (PageIndex1): Amylose. (a) Amylose is a linear chain that α-D-glucose systems joined with each other by α-1,4-glycosidic bonds. (b) because of hydrogen bonding, amylose acquires a spiral framework that consists of six glucose devices per turn.

Amylopectin is a branched-chain polysaccharide written of glucose units linked primarily through α-1,4-glycosidic bonds but with sometimes α-1,6-glycosidic bonds, which are responsible for the branching. A molecule the amylopectin might contain numerous thousands of glucose units with branch clues occurring about every 25–30 systems (Figure (PageIndex2)). The helical structure of amylopectin is disrupted by the branching of the chain, so instead of the deep blue-violet shade amylose offers with iodine, amylopectin produce a much less intense red brown.

1 2-Dibromoethane Condensed Structural Formula Of 1,2, Structure Of 1,2

Like amylose, cellulose is a direct polymer that glucose. It differs, however, in the the glucose units space joined by β-1,4-glycosidic linkages, producing a more extended structure than amylose (part (a) of number (PageIndex3)). This extreme linearity permits a great deal that hydrogen bonding between OH groups on surrounding chains, resulting in them come pack closely into yarn (part (b) of number (PageIndex3)). Together a result, cellulose exhibits little interaction through water or any type of other solvent. Cotton and wood, because that example, are totally insoluble in water and have considerable mechanical strength. Since cellulose does not have a helical structure, that does not bind to iodine to type a fancy product.