GRE topic Test: Biology assist » cabinet Biology » cell Metabolism » expertise the Krebs cycle
Explanation:

The Krebs bike is an extremely important because that the manufacturing of the electron carriers NADH and also FADH2. NADH is created in a higher quantity, partially due to the fact that that is much more energetically favorable throughout the electron carry chain. During one revolve of the Krebs cycle, one acetyl-CoA is supplied to generate a CoA residue, 3 NADH, one GTP, one FADH2, and also two carbon dioxide. Every glucose molecule produces 2 acetyl-CoA, fueling two turns of the Krebs cycle and also doubling this amounts.

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The net commodities of glycolysis room 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and also 2 NADH.


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Example question #6 : cell Metabolism


Which of the following commodities is developed in the greatest quantity during the Krebs cycle?


Possible Answers:

*


*


*



Correct answer:


Explanation:

For every 2 molecules the pyruvate that go into the Krebs cycle, 6 molecules that NADH are generated. Only 4 molecules the carbon dioxide, two molecules the FADH2, and two molecules of ATP (GTP) are produced. The factor this has actually significance is since NADH is critical electron carrier the will help produce huge amounts the ATP throughout the electron carry chain. The major purpose of the Krebs bike is to generate big amounts that this electron carrier in order to fuel the electron move chain and also oxidative phosphorylation, which is ultimately responsible because that mass manufacturing of ATP.


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Example concern #7 : cell Metabolism


What molecule joins with acetyl CoA in order come produce citrate?


Possible Answers:

Pyruvate


Succinate


Oxaloacetate


Ketoglutarate


Correct answer:

Oxaloacetate


Explanation:

Acetyl CoA (a two-carbon molecule) beginning the Krebs cycle by joining through oxaloacetate (a four-carbon molecule) in stimulate to create the six-carbon molecule citrate.


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Example inquiry #8 : cabinet Metabolism


__________ is the loss of electrons resulted in by __________ agents.


Possible Answers:

Oxidation . . . Oxidizing 


Reduction . . . Reducing


Reduction . . . Oxidizing


None that these


Oxidation . . . Reducing


Correct answer:

Oxidation . . . Oxidizing 


Explanation:

Oxidation is the procedure by which a molecule loser an electron, i m sorry is led to by an oxidizing agent. Palliation is the process by i m sorry a molecule profit an electron, i m sorry is brought about by a reduce agent. Remember: OIL RIG (Oxidation Is loss of electrons, palliation Is acquire of electrons)


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Example inquiry #9 : cabinet Metabolism


Which the the complying with are high energy intermediates created during the citric mountain cycle?

I.

*

II. 

*

III. 

*

IV. 

*


Possible Answers:

I, II, III, and also IV


I and also III


II and III


I, II, and III


I, III, and also IV


Correct answer:

I and III


Explanation:

*
 and 
*
 are the just high energy intermediates produced in moving respiration.
*
 is produced instead in the irradiate reactions that photosynthesis or in the pentose phosphate pathway. However, all three of these have the right to pass on your high power electrons to reduce other substrates. Even though
*
 is produced in cellular respiration, it is no a high power intermediate.
*
 is the many oxidized type of carbon and cannot it is in tapped right into for further energy by conventional metabolic processes.


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Example concern #10 : cabinet Metabolism


Which molecule reacts through oxaloacetate (four-carbons) to form citrate (six-carbons) in the start of the citric mountain cycle?


Possible Answers:

Fumarate


Alpha-ketoglutarate


Malate


Succinate


Acetyl CoA


Correct answer:

Acetyl CoA


Explanation:

The acetyl group from the molecule acetyl CoA (two-carbons) is added to oxaloacetate to kind citrate in the start of the citric mountain cycle. Alpha-ketoglutarate (five-carbons), succinate (four-carbons), fumarate (four-carbons), and malate (four-carbons) space all intermediates that the citric mountain cycle. Acetyl-CoA have the right to come from assorted metabolic pathways consisting of glycolysis (and subsequent pyruvate dehydrogenation) and beta-oxidation of fat acids.


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Example concern #41 : cabinet Biology


Which high energy intermediate is created when pyruvate and also coenzyme A react to form acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide?


Possible Answers:

*


Correct answer:

*


Explanation:

The decarboxylation that pyruvate outcomes in the manufacturing of NADH. NADH deserve to then pass its high energy electrons with the electron carry chain, which leads to ATP production. The various other high energy intermediates, except for NADPH, are developed in other stages of cellular respiration (glycolysis and Krebs cycle). Cyclic AMP is an intracellular second messenger that is connected in signal transduction and also regulation of many cellular processes.


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Example concern #42 : cell Biology


The hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and also an inorganic phosphate is a(n) __________ reaction.

I. Exergonic

II. Endergonic

III. Spontaneous

IV. Nonspontaneous


Possible Answers:

II and also IV


I and IV


I and also III


I only


II only


Correct answer:

I and also III


Explanation:

The hydrolysis that ATP releases energy, making it an exergonic reaction. Endergonic reactions require energy from a resource such as the hydrolysis the ATP. ATP will spontaneously hydrolyze to kind ADP and also Pi, this is because the commodities have better entropy, lower free energy, and thus a an adverse

*
. ATP is unstable due to the fact that it has three negatively-charged phosphate teams that defeat one another, and because top top hydrolysis, the phosphate group(s) exhibit resonance.


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Example question #43 : cabinet Biology


Glucose is not the only molecule from which ATP have the right to be derived. Which molecule kind produces the many amount that ATP per gram?


Possible Answers:

Alcohol


Proteins


Carbohydrates


Nucleic acids 


Lipids


Correct answer:

Lipids


Explanation:

Lipids yield the many amount of ATP per gram because they contain the most reduced form of carbon. Alcohols, such together ethanol, room a close 2nd because their carbons are much more reduced than they are in carbohydrates. A basic guide is the lipids produce around 9kcal per gram, alcohols produce about 7kcal per gram, carbohydrates and proteins produce around 4kcal every gram and nucleic acids produce around 2kcal per gram, return they room rarely offered for energy.

See more: Cpt Code For Excision Of Lipoma, Featured Article: Excision Of Lipomas, Coding


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