To know the simple properties separating Metals, native Nonmentals and Metalloids

An element is the simplest form of matter that can not be split into much easier substances or constructed from simpler substances by any ordinary aufdercouch.netical or physics method. There space 110 elements known to us, the end of i m sorry 92 are naturally occurring, when the rest have actually been all set artificially. Elements are more classified into metals, non-metals, and also metalloids.

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Table 2.11.1: Characteristic properties of metallic and non-metallic elements:

Metallic Elements

Nonmetallic elements

Distinguishing luster (shine)

Non-lustrous, various colors

Malleable and also ductile (flexible) as solids

Brittle, hard or soft

Conduct heat and also electricity

Poor conductors

Metallic oxides space basic, ionic

Nonmetallic oxides room acidic, compounds

Cations in aqueous solution

Anions, oxyanions in aqueous solution


Metals

All elements except hydrogen, which form positive ion by shedding electrons during aufdercouch.netical reaction are referred to as metals. Thus metals space electropositive elements. Castle are defined by shining luster, hardness, ability to resonate sound and are wonderful conductors the heat and electricity. Metals are solids under normal conditions except for Mercury.


Physical nature of Metals

Metals are lustrous, malleable, ductile, good conductors the heat and also electricity. Other properties include:

State: metals are solids in ~ room temperature v the exception of mercury, i m sorry is liquid at room temperature (Gallium is liquid on warm days). Luster: Metals have the high quality of showing light from its surface and can be sleek e.g., gold, silver and copper. Malleability: Metals have the capacity to resist hammering and also can be made right into thin sheets well-known as foils (a street cube chunk the gold deserve to be pounded into a thin sheet which will certainly cover a football field). Ductility: Metals deserve to be attracted into wires. 100 gm that silver can be drawn into a thin wire about 200 meter long. Hardness: All steels are hard except sodium and potassium, which space soft and can be cut with a knife. Valency: Metals have 1 to 3 electrons in the outermost shell of their atoms. Conduction: steels are great conductors since they have cost-free electrons. Silver and copper room the two finest conductors the heat and electricity. Lead is the poorest conductor of heat. Bismuth, mercury and iron are likewise poor conductors Density: Metals have high density and are very heavy. Iridium and also osmium have the highest possible densities wherein as lithium has actually the lowest density. Melting and Boiling Points: Metals have high melting and also boiling point. Tungsten has the highest melting suggest where as silver has actually low cook point. Sodium and also potassium have actually low melting points.

aufdercouch.netical nature of Metals

Metals room electropositive facets that generally kind basic or amphoteric oxides v oxygen. Other aufdercouch.netical properties include:

Electropositive Character: steels tend to have actually low ionization energies, and also typically lose electrons (i.e. Room oxidized) as soon as they undergo aufdercouch.netical reactions They normally do not accept electrons. Because that example:

Alkali steels are always 1+ (lose the electron in s subshell) Alkaline earth metals are always 2+ (lose both electron in s subshell) shift metal ions execute not follow an obvious pattern, 2+ is common, and 1+ and also 3+ are likewise observed compounds of metals with non-metals have tendency to be ionic in nature Most steel oxides are simple oxides and also dissolve in water to form metal hydroxides:

Metal oxide + water -> metal hydroxide

Na2O(s) + H2O(l) -> 2NaOH(aq)

CaO(s) + H2O(l) -> Ca(OH)2(aq)

metal oxides exhibit their basic aufdercouch.netical nature by reacting v acids to kind salts and also water:

Metal oxide + acid -> salt + water

MgO(s) + HCl(aq) -> MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l)

NiO(s) + H2SO4(aq) -> NiSO4(aq) + H2O(l)


Example

What is the aufdercouch.netical formula for aluminum oxide?

Solution

Al has actually 3+ charge, the oxide ion is O2-, for this reason Al2O3


Example

Would you intend it to it is in solid, fluid or gas at room temp?

Solutions

Oxides of metals are characteristically solid at room temp


Example

Write the balanced aufdercouch.netical equation for the reaction the aluminum oxide with nitric acid:

Solution

Metal oxide + mountain -> salt + water

Al2O3(s) + 6HNO3(aq) -> 2Al(NO3)3(aq) + 3H2O(l)


Nonmetals

Elements that often tend to acquire electrons to kind anions during aufdercouch.netical reactions are referred to as non-metals. These room electronegative elements. They room non-lustrous, brittle and poor conductors the heat and electricity (except graphite). Non-metals deserve to be gaseous, liquids or solids.


Physical nature of nonmetals:

Physical State: most of the non-metals exist in two of the three claims of issue at room temperature: gases (oxygen) and solids (carbon). Non-Malleable and Ductile: Non-metals are very brittle, and also cannot it is in rolled into wires or pounded right into sheets. Conduction: castle are poor conductors of heat and also electricity. Luster: These have actually no metallic luster and also do not reflect irradiate Conductivity: poor conductors that heat and also electricity Melting and also Boiling Points: The melting points that non-metals room generally reduced than steels Seven non-metals exist under standard problems as diatomic molecules: H2(g) N2(g) O2(g) F2(g) Cl2(g) Br2(l) I2(l) (volatile liquid - evaporates readily)

aufdercouch.netical properties of Nonmetals

Non-metals have a propensity to obtain or share electron with various other atoms. They room electronegative in character. Nonmetals, as soon as reacting with metals, have tendency to acquire electrons (typically attaining noble gas electron configuration) and become anions:

Nonmetal + metal -> Salt

<3Br_2(l) + 2Al_(s) ightarrow 2AlBr_3(s)>

link composed entirely of nonmetals space molecular substances (not ionic). Lock generally type acidic or neutral oxides v oxygen that that dissolve in water react to type acids:

Nonmetal oxide + water -> acid

(carbonated water is contempt acidic)

Nonmetal oxides can integrate with bases to type salts.

Nonmetal oxide + basic -> salt


Metalloids

Properties intermediate in between the metals and nonmetals. Metalloids are advantageous in the semiconductor industry.

metals Non-metals Metalloids
Gold Oxygen Silicon
Silver Carbon Boron
Copper Hydrogen Arsenic
Iron Nitrogen Antimony
Mercury Sulphur Germanium
Zinc Phosphorus

Physical nature of Metalloids

State: They are all solid at room temperature. Conduction: some metalloids, such together silicon and germanium, can act as electric conductors under the ideal conditions, hence they are referred to as semi-conductors.

Luster: Silicon for example appears lustrous, however is not simple or ductile (it is brittle - a characteristics of some nonmetals). It is a much poorer conductor the heat and electricity 보다 the metals.

Solid Solutions: they can kind alloys with other metals.

aufdercouch.netical nature of Metalloids

their physical properties have tendency to it is in metallic, yet their aufdercouch.netical properties tend to be non-metallic. The oxidation number of an facet in this group can selection from +3 to -2, depending on the team in which the is located.

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Trends in Metallic and Nonmetallic Character

Metallic character is strongest because that the facets in the leftmost component of the regular table, and tends come decrease as we move to the right in any duration (nonmetallic character increases with enhancing ionization values). Within any type of group of elements (columns), the metallic character boosts from height to bottom (the ionization values normally decrease together we relocate down a group). This basic trend is not necessarily observed v the transition metals.