Communication is a complicated process, and it is an overwhelming to determine where or v whom a interaction encounter starts and also ends. It can sometimes be beneficial to consider different interaction models. Listed below are some inquiries to help guide you v this chapter.

You are watching: Which model considers both people in a conversation to be senders and receivers simultaneously?

Why perform models (of anything) matter in the actual world?What value do communication models have?What interaction models perform you know around already?How have the right to learning about communication models be valuable to you?

Models of communication simplify the procedure by offering a visual representation of the various elements of a communication encounter. Some models explain interaction in much more detail than others, however even the most complex model still doesn’t recreate what we experience in even a minute of a interaction encounter. Models still serve a an useful purpose for students the communication since they enable us to see particular concepts and steps within the procedure of communication, define communication, and also apply interaction concepts. Once you become conscious of how communication functions, you have the right to think much more deliberately through your communication encounters, which can aid you far better prepare for future communication and also learn from your previous communication. The 3 models of interaction we will comment on are the transmission, interaction, and transaction models.

Although this models of interaction differ, lock contain some usual elements. The first two models we will discuss, the transmission model and also the interaction model, include the following parts: participants, messages, encoding, decoding, and channels. In communication models, the participants are the senders and/or receivers of messages in a interaction encounter. The blog post is the verbal or nonverbal content being conveyed native sender to receiver. For example, as soon as you to speak “Hello!” to your friend, girlfriend are sending out a message of greeting that will be received by her friend.

The inner cognitive procedure that enables participants to send, receive, and understand message is the encoding and decoding process. Encoding is the procedure of turning thoughts right into communication. Together we will learn later, the level of conscious thought that goes into encoding message varies. Decoding is the process of turning communication right into thoughts. Because that example, you may realize you hungry and encode the following message come send to her roommate: “I’m hungry. Carry out you desire to get pizza tonight?” together your roommate obtain the message, they decode her communication and also turn it earlier into think in order come make an interpretation out the it. The course, we don’t just connect verbally—we have actually various options, or networks for communication. Encoded message are sent through a channel, or a sensory path on i beg your pardon a blog post travels, come the receiver for decoding. While communication can be sent and also received using any kind of sensory path (sight, smell, touch, taste, or sound), most interaction occurs with visual (sight) and/or hear (sound) channels. If her roommate has actually headphones on and is engrossed in a video game, you may need to obtain their fist by waving your hands before you have the right to ask them about dinner.

Linear model of communication

The straight or transmission version of communication, as presented in figure 2.2.1, describes interaction as a linear, one-way procedure in i beg your pardon a sender deliberately transmits a article to a recipient (Ellis & McClintock, 1990). This model concentrates on the sender and message in ~ a communication encounter. Back the recipient is had in the model, this function is viewed as an ext of a target or end suggest rather than component of an recurring process. We space left to presume that the receiver either efficiently receives and understands the article or go not. The scholars that designed this model extended on a straight model proposed by Aristotle centuries before that included a speaker, message, and hearer. Castle were likewise influenced through the advent and spread of brand-new communication technologies of the moment such as telegraphy and also radio, and also you deserve to probably view these technical influences within the model (Shannon & Weaver, 1949). Think of just how a radio message is sent out from a human in the radio studio to you hearne in her car. The sender is the radio announcer that encodes a verbal post that is sent by a radio tower through electromagnetic tide (the channel) and also eventually reaches her (the receiver’s) ears via one antenna and speakers in stimulate to it is in decoded. The radio announcer no really know if you obtain their message or not, however if the devices is working and the channel is totally free of static, climate there is a an excellent chance the the blog post was successfully received.


Figure 2.2.1 The straight model of communication

Although the transmission model may seem basic or also underdeveloped to united state today, the development of this model allowed scholars to research the communication procedure in brand-new ways, which at some point led to more complex models and theories the communication.

Interactive version of communication

The interaction or communication model that communication, as displayed in figure 2.2.2, describes interaction as a procedure in which participants alternate positions as sender and receiver and generate definition by sending messages and also receiving feedback in ~ physical and also psychological contexts (Schramm, 1997). Quite than illustrating interaction as a linear, one-way process, the interactive design incorporates feedback, i m sorry makes communication a much more interactive, two-way process. Feedback contains messages sent in solution to various other messages. Because that example, her instructor may respond come a allude you raise during course discussion or girlfriend may point to the sofa once your roommate asks you whereby the remote regulate is. The consist of of a feedback loop likewise leads come a more complex understanding the the functions of participants in a interaction encounter. Fairly than having actually one sender, one message, and also one receiver, this model has two sender-receivers that exchange messages. Each participant alternates roles as sender and receiver in bespeak to save a communication encounter going. Return this seems favor a perceptible and also deliberate process, we alternating between the duties of sender and receiver really quickly and also often without aware thought.

The interactive version is additionally less message concentrated and more interaction focused. If the straight model concentrated on just how a blog post was sent and whether or no it to be received, the interactive design is an ext concerned through the communication process itself. In fact, this version acknowledges that there are so plenty of messages gift sent at one time that numerous of them might not even be received. Some messages are also unintentionally sent. Therefore, communication isn’t judged effective or ineffective in this model based on whether or not a single message was efficiently transmitted and received.


Figure 2.2.2 The interactive model of communication

The interactive model takes physical and psychological context right into account. Physical context consists of the environmental determinants in a interaction encounter. The size, layout, temperature, and lighting that a space influence our communication. Imagine the various physical contexts in which job interviews take it place and how the may affect your communication. Ns have had job interviews over the phone, crowded roughly a table through eight interviewers, and sitting with few people approximately an extra large conference table. I’ve additionally been walked roughly an office to all of sudden interview one-on-one, in succession, v multiple members of a search committee end a duration of 3 hours. Whether it’s the size of the room or other eco-friendly factors, it’s necessary to think about the role that physical context plays in our communication. Emotional context contains the mental and also emotional determinants in a interaction encounter. Stress, anxiety, and emotions are simply some instances of psychological influences that can influence our communication. Seemingly positive psychological states, favor experiencing the emotion of love, have the right to also impact communication. Feedback and context aid make the communication model a more useful illustration that the interaction process, but the transaction model views communication as a powerful tool that shapes our realities beyond individual communication encounters.

Transaction model of communication

As the study of interaction progressed, models expanded to account for much more of the interaction process. Countless scholars view interaction as much more than a process that is supplied to lug on conversations and also convey meaning. Us don’t send messages favor computers, and also we nothing neatly alternating between the roles of sender and also receiver together an interaction unfolds. We likewise can’t consciously decide to protect against communicating because communication is an ext than sending and receiving messages. The transaction model differs native the transmission and interaction models in far-ranging ways, consisting of the conceptualization that communication, the function of sender and also receiver, and also the duty of paper definition (Barnlund, 1970).

The transaction version of interaction describes interaction as a process in i beg your pardon communicators create social realities in ~ social, relational, and cultural contexts. In this model, i m sorry is presented in figure 2.2.3, we don’t just interact to exchange messages; we connect to develop relationships, form intercultural alliances, form our self-concepts, and engage with others in conversation to produce communities.

The duties of sender and receiver in the transaction version of communication differ significantly from the other models. Instead of labeling participants together senders and receivers, the human being in a communication encounter are referred to as communicators. Unequal the interactive model, which suggests that participants alternative positions as sender and also receiver, the transaction model says that us are concurrently senders and also receivers. This is an important addition come the model due to the fact that it permits us come understand just how we are able to it is adapted our communication—for example, a linguistic message—in the middle of sending out it based upon the interaction we are at the same time receiving from our interaction partner.


Figure 2.2.3 The transaction version of communication

The transaction model likewise includes a more complicated understanding that context. The communication model portrays context together physical and psychological influences that enhance or impede communication. While this contexts are important, they focus on blog post transmission and reception. Due to the fact that the transaction design of communication views communication as a force that forms our realities before and after certain interactions occur, it have to account because that contextual influences external of a single interaction. To execute this, the transaction design considers how social, relational, and cultural contexts frame and influence our interaction encounters.

Social context describes the stated rules or unstated standards that guide communication. Norms are social conventions that we choose up on with observation, practice, and trial and also error. We may not also know we room breaking a social norm till we notice people spring at united state strangely or who corrects or teases us. Relational context includes the ahead interpersonal history and kind of partnership we have with a person. We communicate differently with someone we just met matches someone we’ve recognized for a long time. Initial interactions with people tend come be much more highly scripted and also governed by created norms and rules, yet when we have an developed relational context, us may be able to bend or break social norms and rules more easily. Cultural context includes various facets of identities such together race, gender, nationality, ethnicity, sexual orientation, class, and ability. We all have multiple social identities that affect our communication. Some people, particularly those with identities that have been in the history marginalized, are regularly conscious of just how their cultural identities affect their communication and also influence just how others communicate with them. Conversely, people with identities that are dominant or in the majority may rarely, if ever, think around the function their social identities pat in your communication. Social context is influenced by numerous aspects of our identities and is not limited to gyeongju or ethnicity.


Barnlund, D. C. (1970). A transactional version of communication in K.K. Sereno and C.D. Mortenson (Eds.), Foundations of communication theory (pp. 83-92). Brand-new York, NY: Harper and also Row.

Ellis, R. And also McClintock, A. (1990). You take my meaning: Theory right into practice in person communication. London: Edward Arnold.

Schramm, W. (1997). The starts of communication study in America. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Shannon, C. And Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana, IL: university of Illinois Press.

See more: Found Lining The Digestive And Respiratory Tracts ? Epithelial Tissue


This chapter includes material bring away from thing 1.2 “The communication process” in Communication in the real world: An introduction to communication studies and is provided under a CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 International license.