Explanation:

Groups of hormones from the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and also individual endocrine glands are often organized right into a hormone cascade pathway. The flow of such a cascade occurs together follows:

1. Signals or sensory cell in the brain trigger the hypothalamus come secrete a hormone (example: thyroid-releasing hormone) the either stimulates or inhibits release of a certain hormone indigenous the anterior pituitary.

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2. The anterior pituitary hormone (example: thyroid-stimulating hormone) acts on a target endocrine organization (example: thyroid gland)

3. The endocrine tissue secretes a systemic hormone (example: thyroid hormone/T4) that creates a physiological response.

4. The physiological an answer by the target cell provides an adverse feedback to the mind to curtail the cascade. 


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Example question #41 : Endocrine system


What aspect of development hormone differentiates it from various other anterior pituitary hormones?


Possible Answers:

It provides an adverse feedback directly to the hypothalamus


It is a steroid hormone


It produces both tropic and non-tropic effects


It is the only glycoprotein hormone


Correct answer:

It produces both tropic and non-tropic effects


Explanation:

Non-tropic hormones are hormone that straight stimulate target cells to induce effects. Because that example, aldosterone acts directly on the kidney to promote reabsorption of sodium, i beg your pardon causes rise in blood pressure. This different from dry hormones, which action on various other endocrine glands to stimulate (or inhibit) relax of a 2nd hormone. For example, thyroid-stimulating hormone is responsible for stimulating the release for thyroid hormone by exhilaration on the thyroid gland.

Growth hormone (GH) stimulates development through both tropic and also non-tropic mechanisms. Growth hormone"s major tropic impact is to wake up the release of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) from the liver, which causes bone growth. Expansion hormone also stimulates a number of tissues through non-tropic instrument to influence metabolism and also raise blood glucose levels.


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Example inquiry #41 : Endocrine system


Which that the adhering to is most straight regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH)?


Possible Answers:

Glucose


Calcium ions


Corticosteroids


Thyroid hormone


Correct answer:

Calcium ions


Explanation:

Calcium ions are vital for regular cellular function. Parathyroid hormone is released as soon as blood calcium levels fall listed below a threshold of about 10mg per 100mL. Parathyroid hormone acts come raise blood calcium through multiple mechanisms. It works directly to increase blood calcium by resulting in demineralization the bone and by straight stimulating ion reabsorption in the kidneys. It additionally acts indirect by stimulating switch of vitamin D, which acts upon the intestines to wake up the absorb of calcium ions from food.


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Example inquiry #44 : Endocrine system


What form of receptor walk this lipid-soluble molecule activate?


Possible Answers:

Second messenger receptor


Intracellular receptor


Post-synaptic receptor


Cell surface ar (transmembrane) receptor


Correct answer:

Intracellular receptor


Explanation:

This molecule is estrogen, a lipid-soluble endocrine hormone. Estrogen action a standard endocrine hormone. It is secreted and diffuses into the bloodstream to trigger a physiological an answer in target cells anywhere in the body the possess estrogen receptors.

Estrogen is a steroid hormone. That is nonpolar nature and small size allow it come diffuse with the membrane of target cell, binding to receptors within the cytoplasm. The estrogen receptor is an intracellular receptor who activation through ligand binding frequently results in alteration of gene expression.

 


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Example question #45 : Endocrine mechanism


Which of the following is does not define an endocrine interaction?


Possible Answers:

All the these room endocrine interactions


Insulin is secreted by the pancreas to reduced blood-glucose levels


Adrenocorticotropic hormone is secreted to wake up secretion the cortisol


Epinephrine is secreted into a synapse to excite a post-synaptic neuron


Correct answer:

Epinephrine is secreted right into a synapse to excite a post-synaptic neuron


Explanation:

Endocrine interaction involve a molecule (hormone) gift secreted into the bloodstream to create a solution in target cells in a different location. Reduction of blood-glucose level by insulin and stimulation the cortisol release by adrenocorticotropic hormone are both examples of endocrine function.

Though epinephrine can act together a hormone once secreted by the adrenal medulla, the answer option suggests that the is gift secreted through a neuron into a synapse. In this case, epinephrine would certainly be acting as a neurotransmitter, causing an effect on a surrounding post-synaptic neuron. This answer does not describe an endocrine interaction.


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Example inquiry #46 : Endocrine mechanism


Which that the following physiological responses is not under hormonal control?


Possible Answers:

An insect larva transitioning to the pupa stage


Glucagon impact of raising blood glucose levels


Calcitonin lowering that blood calcium levels


Prostaglandin stimulation of uterine smooth muscle contraction


Correct answer:

Prostaglandin stimulation the uterine smooth muscle contraction


Explanation:

In nearly all animals, the endocrine and nervous systems are integrated to respond and control physiological responses.

In insects, the prothoracic gland releases a hormone called ecdysone at various times to stimulate molting and also maturation. Calcitonin and glucagon room hormones that are secreted through the pancreas and thyroid gland, respectively. They develop these hormone in an answer to recurring monitoring that blood levels for glucose and also calcium. The hormones room secreted to create physiological responses in order to bring a go back to homeostasis.

Prostaglandins are regional regulators and also produce rapid responses that room confined come a tiny area. In the example, prostaglandins in semen stimulate the smooth muscle the the uterine wall to contract come facilitate sperm reaching an egg.


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Example concern #41 : Endocrine mechanism


Which of the adhering to in not a tropical hormone?


Possible Answers:

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)


Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)


Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)


Prolactin


Correct answer:

Prolactin


Explanation:

A tropical hormone is one that regulates the function of other endocrine cell or glands. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and also luteinizing hormone (LH) room the four topic hormones that are created by the anterior pituitary.

Prolactin is additionally produced through the anterior pituitary, yet does not cause a response from any kind of other endocrine tissues. The stimulation that mammary gland growth and also milk production in mammals, regulation of fat metabolism and reproduction in birds, and also the regulation of salt and water balance in freshwater fish room all functions of prolactin.


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Example concern #42 : Endocrine system


Which the the following is a hormone the is directly regulated by the worried system? 


Possible Answers:

Epinephrine


Calcitonin


Melatonin


Estrogen


Correct answer:

Epinephrine


Explanation:

Epinephrine, or adrenaline, is regulated by the nervous mechanism when an eco-friendly stress occurs. Nerve signals travel with the spinal cord come the adrenal medulla, i m sorry secretes epinephrine and also norepinephrine. Relax of epinephrine is not resulted in by a dry hormone or other cell signal, however by direct neural stimulation.

Release that epinephrine is a momentary stress an answer that boosts blood pressure, breath rate, glycogen malfunction to glucose, and metabolic rate. This boosts alertness, and also decreases digestive, excretory and reproductive system activity. Epinephrine is basically responsible because that the effects of the sympathetic worried system, i beg your pardon is energetic during the "fight or flight" response.


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Example inquiry #49 : Endocrine system


Following a huge meal, i beg your pardon of the following biological changes occurs?


Possible Answers:

Insulin levels spike, facilitating the warehouse of glucose right into cells


Glucagon levels spike, cultivating the failure of glycogen


Glycogenolysis begins to occur


Gluconeogenesis activity increases


Insulin level drop, facilitating the release of glucose from cells


Correct answer:

Insulin level spike, facilitating the warehouse of glucose right into cells


Explanation:

Following a big uptake that glucose, the body will begin to relax insulin come facilitate storage of the glucose molecules within the cell of the liver, as well as skeletal muscles.

Glucagon is released once blood glucose levels room low and also promotes boost in totally free blood glucose. The breakdown of glycogen into complimentary blood glucose is a process known as glycogenolysis; this process is created by glucagon and inhibited by insulin. Gluconeogenesis is the generation that glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates; that is additionally stimulated by glucagon and also inhibited by insulin.


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Example inquiry #41 : Endocrine device


Which of the adhering to is one endocrine organ?


Possible Answers:

The kidney


The spleen


The gallbladder


The stomach


The appendix


Correct answer:

The kidney


Explanation:

Endocrine glands release hormones directly into the circulatory system, whereby they can act on target effector organs. The kidneys offer both endocrine and exocrine functions. Releasing pee filtrate with ducts is one exocrine function. Kidneys also release the hormone erythropoietin, which disclosure the generation of new red blood cells.

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