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Suction Filtration Overview

Suction filtration (vacuum filtration) is the standard technique used for separating a solid-liquid mixture once the goal is to retain the hard (for instance in crystallization). Comparable to gravity filtration, a solid-liquid mixture is poured onto a filter paper, with the main difference being the the process is aided by suction beneath the funnel (Figures 1.70 + 1.71).

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Figure 1.70: Suction filtration.

The procedure has benefits and flaw in compare to heaviness filtration.

Advantages: 1) Suction filtration is much much faster than heaviness filtration, often taking much less than one minute with good seals and a an excellent vacuum source. 2) Suction filtration is much more efficient in ~ removing residual liquid, causing a purer solid. This is especially important in crystallization, together the liquid may contain dissolve impurities which could adsorb ago onto the solid surface as soon as the solvent evaporates.

Disadvantages: The force of suction may attract fine crystals through the filter record pores, bring about a quantity of product that cannot be recovered indigenous the filter paper, and also possibly an additional quantity that is lost in the filtrate. This technique therefore works ideal with huge crystals. On small scales, the lose of material to the filter record and filtrate is significant, and also so other techniques are recommended because that microscale work.

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filter cake"). In the case of crystallization, the same solvent native the crystallization is used. The hard is climate delicately slushed roughly in the solvent with a glass rod, and the vacuum is reapplied to remove the rinse solvent.

To show the importance of a rinse, figure 1.72 shows the recovery of a white solid native a yellow liquid making use of suction filtration. The yellow liquid seemed to it is in somewhat maintained by the solid, as the an initial crystals gathered had a yellow tint (Figure 1.72b). However, rinsing with a couple of portions that cold solvent were effective at removed the yellow fluid (Figure 1.72d), which can have been reincorporated into the solid without the rinse.

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Figure 1.72: recovery of acetanilide (white crystals) from a solution that included yellow (methyl red) impurities. The crystals were initially tinted yellow (b), and the shade faded ~ rinsing through cold water (c+d).

Water Aspirator

A vacuum resource is essential for suction filtration (and vacuum distillation). Although many science structures come equipped through a house vacuum system (Figure 1.73a), solvents evaporating native a suction filter flask over time deserve to degrade the oil pumps used in a home vacuum. Therefore, that is encourage to instead attach a suction flask come a water aspirator.

A water aspirator is an cheap attachment to a water spigot, and also the nub ~ above the aspirator connects with tubing to the ship to it is in evacuated (Figure 1.73b). As water flows with the faucet and also the aspirator, suction is produced in the flask.

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Figure 1.73: a) residence vacuum system at Butte College, b) Water aspirator (indicated with an arrow), c) diagram of one aspirator.

A water aspirator create suction v the Bernoulli rule (technically, the Venturi Effect, for liquids). Water comes from the faucet is constricted within the aspirator (Figure 1.73c). As the water flow must be the exact same going into the aspirator as it is going out, the water speed must boost in the constricted area in the direction the flow. A comparable phenomenon can be checked out in creeks and rivers where the water operation the fastest at the narrowest sections of streams. As soon as the water rises its velocity in the direction that the water flow, conservation of power dictates that its velocity in perpendicular directions must decrease. The result is a lowered pressure nearby to the fast-moving liquid. In various other words, the acquire in velocity the the constricted liquid is well balanced by a palliation in pressure on the surrounding product (the gas).

For this reason, the rate at which the water flows v the faucet is correlated with the quantity of suction knowledgeable in the associated flask. A solid flow the water will have actually the faster speeds with the aspirator and also the greatest reduction in pressure.

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Step-by-Step Procedures

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Figure 1.74: Suction filtration flask attached come a vacuum trap and water aspirator. The arrows present the direction the suction.